Crouzon / Craniosynostosis / Apert / Pfieffer
The restricted skull cavity can place pressure on the developing brain leading to visual problems and learning difficulties if not corrected. The headshape is typically abnormal. The facial bones, orbits, nose (and other areas) may be affected in cases of syndromic craniosynostosis.
Craniosynostosis is fusion of the skull sutures
- can run in families (inherited)
- can occur for the first time (sporadically)
Crouzon and Apert syndromes are associated with other facial changes including reduced facial projection and growth, prominent eyes, breathing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea, airway obstruction, dental and occlusal problems with speech and chewing/biting difficulties. Hands and fingers and other body systems may be affected. Apert syndrome is characterized by syndactyly (fusion or webbing of the fingers or toes).
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